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One important observation is that good teaching and learning does and can occur at a distance. Faculty and student evaluations of distance learning at many institutions including CUNY support this observation. Typically, teachers who are successful in face-to-face classrooms, when trained in distance learning techniques are successful teachers at a distance as well. Students who are academically ready, who possess good communications skills, and who can take responsibility for their learning likewise can learn well via distance learning. Hanson et al provides an extensive review of the research literature on this topic and is highly recommended as a starting point for further information.

Assessment of the effectiveness of these modalities is underway. There is a growing amount of research on best practices and on what factors and design features appear to be related to retention and academic achievement. It is not unexpected that assessment of the new modalities, while already considerable, still leaves more to be desired. Of particular interest and value will be the research that would indicate for what communities particular modalities are most appropriate or effective.

Technology and tools for online learning | Jisc

For whom are such distance learning modalities intended? Could they be served just as well or better by other modalities? What is the need for such? What is the value of providing such? By whom are they most valued? Are there any groups for whom this mode is the best available? Are there any educational goals for which this modality is the most effective? Is there any subject matter for which this modality is superior to all others? Whatever value there may be in this modality could it not be realized in other ways that would involve the face-to-face encounters?

The University is presently in the process of developing a new intellectual property policy that in draft form is not as protective of faculty rights. Included amongst these issues are the qustons:Who owns the materials? The courses?

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Who controls the materials? Are there to be voluntary or mandated DL assignments? Can new hires be required to teach online courses?

Academic Freedom: Can faculty use prerogatives to refuse using DL modalities? Can an institution refuse the faculty request for a DL modality and deny access to space on a computer server for a DL course as it can deny classroom space? Can it afford not to at that point?

CUNY has in its Online program provided centralized support for courses development and delivery and for faculty training, technical support and incentives. Will CUNY move to create a system where learners can proceed to register and take DL courses in any combination of CUNY units and receive a degree from one of them or from some central office?

What of the administration, registration, advisement, financial aid and counseling procedures needed for CUNY Online Degree granting programs? Does it expand access and permit the more effective delivery of services not only to more learners but also to a more diverse community of learners? Considering studies that indicate that DL does both contribute to the enrichment of the teaching process making it learner centered and supportive of learners and learning communities and contribute to mastery of content, skills and technically assisted intellectual discourse and problem solving: would CUNY fail in its pedagogic responsibilities not to make a full commitment to DL modalities?

DL provides for the further advance of knowledge and the promotion of intellectual skills development. Should not an institution as large and prestigious and socially responsive as CUNY be fully engaged in the social revolution underway through the pervasive influx of information and communication technologies? Should not CUNY deliberately engage in its own redefinition and recreation rather than merely being reactive and risk being marginalized?

Information technologies and the Internet have already entered into many social institutions to an astonishing degree producing significant impacts and developing dependencies upon them. Even in a postmodernist age with a healthy distrust of certainty the continuation of distance learning modalities is a process most reasonably assured. As long as individuals and institutions value access to opportunities and convenience and efficiency and economy, there will be learning taking place by means of some global communications superstructure.

Key questions for the present include: whether the distance education modalities will be developed to produce more efficacious vehicles to prepare learners with the knowledge and skills needed to deal with and prosper in our rapidly changing technological societies and another question is whether CUNY will be able to continue much longer without the use of such vehicles or, perhaps, even with them!

Hanson, D. Washington, D. Lenzer, R.

Seeing things as they really are. Noam, E. Electronics and the dim future of the university. Rudenstine, N. The Internet and education: a close fit. The Chronicle of Higher Education , pp. Virginia Montecino. California Virtual Campus Professional Development Center - information about distance-learning at California institutions of higher education. California Virtual Campus Professional Development Center Newsletter - different features each month, spotlight a particular online class.


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Distance Education Report - Magna Publications. Distance Learning Bibliography. Distance Learning as an Educational System. Distance Learning on the Net - Glenn Hoyle. Online Learning - an Overview - U. United States Distance Learning Association - "promote the development and application of distance learning for education and training. The constituents we serve include Pre-K through grade 12 education, higher education, home school education, continuing education, corporate training, military and government training, and telemedicine. World Association for Online Education - facing challenges and managing tools for online education and collaboration.

Gomory, president The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Bates, A. Routledge, ISBN: Belanger, France and Dianne H. Evaluation and implementation of distance learning : technologies, tools, and techniques , Hershey, PA: Idea Group Pub. Brooks, David W. Chute, Alan G. Cole, Robert A. Flexible learning in a digital world: experiences and expectations , London: Kogan Page, Dede, Christopher. The evolution of distance learning : technology-mediated interactive learning : a report for the study, "Technologies for learning at a distance ," Science, Education, and Transportation Program, Office of Technology Assessment, Congress of the United States, Washington, D.

Dillon, Connie L. Building a working policy for distance education.


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  • Course developers could charge licensing fees for educational institutions that use its materials. Introductory or "gateway" courses and some remedial courses may earn the most fees. Free introductory courses may attract new students to follow-on fee-charging classes. Blended courses supplement MOOC material with face-to-face instruction. Providers can charge employers for recruiting its students. Students may be able to pay to take a proctored exam to earn transfer credit at a degree-granting university, or for certificates of completion.

    The fee was ostensibly for the company's identity-verification program, which confirms that they took and passed a course.

    Tata Institute of Social Sciences

    In February the American Council on Education ACE recommended that its members provide transfer credit from a few MOOC courses, though even the universities who deliver the courses had said that they would not. The university encouraged students to take online-courses such as MOOCs and complete assessment tests at the university to receive credit.

    Academic Partnerships is a company that helps public universities move their courses online. According to its chairman, Randy Best, "We started it, frankly, as a campaign to grow enrollment.

    READ The Knowledge Web: Learning and Collaborating on the Net (Open and Flexible Learning

    But 72 to 84 percent of those who did the first course came back and paid to take the second course. While Coursera takes a larger cut of any revenue generated — but requires no minimum payment — the not-for-profit edX has a minimum required payment from course providers, but takes a smaller cut of any revenues, tied to the amount of support required for each course. MOOCs are regarded by many as an important tool to widen access to higher education HE for millions of people, including those in the developing world , and ultimately enhance their quality of life.

    MOOCs can help democratise content and make knowledge reachable for everyone. Students are able to access complete courses offered by universities all over the world, something previously unattainable. With the availability of affordable technologies, MOOCs increase access to an extraordinary number of courses offered by world-renowned institutions and teachers. The costs of tertiary education continue to increase because institutions tend to bundle too many services.